Craterellus cornucopioides (L.) Pers. (Fig. 10) is the most common black chanterelle collected in Arkansas. Some common names that have been applied to it include “Black Trumpets” and “Poor man’s Truffle.” This mushroom resembles a black-colored vertical cornucopia or a tubular shaped ancestor of the trumpet. They usually are 1.75 to 2.75 inches (4.4 – 7.0 cm) wide at the top and up to 4 inches (10.2 cm) tall. They are tubular when young, becoming deeply vase-shaped without a clearly defined stem and cap. Inside the trumpet, the surface is colored dark gray to black, often with fine scales appearing as dark fibers. The surface outside the trumpet is smooth or very shallowly wrinkled. Freshly collected specimens possess a very delicate, sweet, fruity aroma that often is difficult to detect with only a few specimens. The best way to experience their aroma is to place several specimens in a wax bag and let them stay for several minutes before the bag is opened and exposed to the nose. Their odor when dried and powdered has been described as “cheesy.” Craterellus cornucopioides usually has two fruiting seasons in Arkansas. They have been found on well drained hillsides during May in central Arkansas, before the yellow and red chanterelles appear. During the fall (October – November), they have been collected in low lying areas. Look for them under oaks, especially black-jack oaks (Quercus marilandica). For many years, mycologists believed that C. cornucopioides was very rare in North America and that it could be differentiated from a commonly collected look-alike called C. fallax by the color of its spores. Many mushroom field guides note that C. cornucopioides has white spores and C. fallax has yellow to salmon colored spores. Recently, DNA analysis has convinced mycologists that both mushrooms are really the same species. Thus, C. fallax was synonymized with C. cornucopioides and many field mycologists breathed a collective sigh of relief, because there was now one less name to remember!