WORLD CIVILIZATION SINCE 1660  

 

FINAL EXAM REVIEW  

 

SPRING 2012  

 


CHAPTER 27 – MODERN EAST ASIA  

 

 

MODERN CHINA (1839–1949)   

 

Close of Manchu Rule:   

  • What were the most serious threats to Manchu rule in the nineteenth century?   
  • Know the reasons for and consequences of the Opium War.  Know which countries were involved and what they did.
  • Review the Treaty of Nanjing and other "unequal treaties."  Why were these treaties unequal?   
  • What was the ideology behind the Taiping Rebellion and the reasons for its successes and ultimate failure?  What were the motives, goals and claims of the leader of the Taiping Rebellion?
  • What was the strength of the Chinese government in the late nineteenth century?   
  • What was the role of treaty ports in Chinese society?   
  • Know what the "Self-Strengthening" movement was.  What was the purposes of this reform movement?  Was it successful or not?
  • Understand the relationship between China and its borderlands--Russia, Korea, Vietnam and Mongolia 

From Dynasty to Warlordism (1895–1926):   

  • Who was empress dowager and what did she do in China?
  • Know who the Boxers were and what the Boxer Rebellion was.
  • Who were the key figures in the revolution of 1911?   
  • What were the reasons for the Chinese reluctance to reform?   
  • Know the historical significance of the Boxer Rebellion   
  • What were the reforms proposed and implemented in China during the early twentieth century?   

Cultural and Ideological Ferment: The May Fourth Movement:   

  • Why was Marxism-Leninism so appealing to Chinese intellectuals?   
  • What were the dominant modes of thought that permeated China in the century after the Opium War?   
  • What was the importance of the May Fourth Movement?   
  • Know the ideologies that shaped the thought of Chinese intellectuals during the 1920s   

Nationalist China:   

  • Who was Jiang Jieshi?   
  • Know the reasons for the rise of the Nationalist Party in China
  • Understand the ideologies and ruling methods of Jiang Jieshi   
  • What were the causes of the Chinese Communist Party’s rise to power?   

MODERN JAPAN (1853–1945)  

 

Overthrow of the Tokugawa Bakufu (1853–1868):   

  • What role did the Chōshū and Satsuma play in the overthrow of Tokugawa rule?  
  • Know the changes in Japanese politics in the aftermath of opening Japan to foreign influence  
  • What were the conflicts between the bakufu and the Japanese court?   
  • Understand the cultural shift in the way the Japanese saw themselves after the opening of Japan   

Building the Meiji State (1868-1890):   

  • What was the Meiji Restoration?  How did it happen?  What does Meiji mean?  Why was this important in the development of Japan?
  • What powers did the Meiji constitution give to the emperor?   
  • What were the political concerns of those who built Japan’s Meiji government?   
  • What were the social changes the Meiji government effected on Japanese society?   
  • Know the role political parties played during the early years of the Meiji government  
  • How was power distributed in the Japanese constitution?   
  • How did the Meiji view the West/Western Powers?

 

Growth of a Modern Economy:   

  • Why did Japan set out to build a modern economy?   
  • How did Meiji reforms changed the Japanese economy?   
  • Know how the government worked to develop modern industries 
  • Know what Zaibatsu was.  Understand the concept.  
  • What were some of the social costs of modernization in Japanese society   

 

The Politics of Imperial Japan (1890-1945):   

  • How did political parties develop in Japan?   
  • Know the primary points of political dispute during the early years of the Meiji system   
  • Understand the reasons for Japan’s emergence as a world power--Know what role international affairs helped elevate Japan to a world power--i.e. Japanese/Chinese War 1895; Boxer Rebellion; Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905. 
  • Know the alternate conceptions of government that emerged in Japan during the early twentieth century   
  • What was the impact of liberalism on Japan during the early twentieth century?   
  • Know the reasons for rising militarism in Japan during the 1920s and 1930s   
  • Who saw themselves as the guardians of Japanese traditions and the founders of the modern Japanese state?

 

Japanese Militarism and German Nazism:   

  • How was Japan similar to and different from Germany during this period?  
  • What were the similarities between the Japanese militarist state and Nazi Germany?   
  • Understand the contrasts between the Japanese and German regimes of the World War II era   

Other Far East Countries:

  • Know the development of Korea during this time period.  Why did the dynasty fall?
  • Know the development of Vietnam during the 19th Century.  What Western power moved in and colonized Vietnam in the mid-19th Century?  Why?

 

TERMS 

 

Sun Zhongshan  

 

Hara Takashi  

 

Guomindang  

 

Opium War  

 

Boxer Rebellion  

 

“Long March”  

 

May Fourth Movement  

 

New Youth  

 

Zeng Guofan  

 

Jiang Jieshi  

 

Zaibatsu   

 

New Life Movement  

 

Treaty Ports  

 

Mao Zedong  

 

Diet  

 

Self-Strengthening  

 

Meiji Restoration   

 

Taiping Rebellion   

 

Tōjō Hideki  

 

Tripartite Pact  

 

Ti-yong   

 
Empress Dowager Tokugawa Wonder Crop  

 


 

 

CHAPTER 28—IMPERIALISM AND WORLD WAR I   

 

Expansion of European Power and the New Imperialism:   

  • Understand what New Imperialism was.   Know the definition of "Imperialism".
  • Know the reasons why New Imperialism became possible during the late nineteenth century.  What areas of the world were the focus of New Imperialism?  Why?
  • Why were Western powers eager to obtain colonies?   
  • What were the motivations for the imperialistic tendencies of Western nations during this period?   
  • How did New Imperialism differ from previous forms of imperialism?   
  • What issues did it raise?   
  • How did it play out in Africa (Scramble for Africa) and in Asia/Pacific?   
  • What were the reasons for the “scramble for Africa”?   
  • How was imperialism in Asia similar to and different from that in Africa?   

 

The Rise of the German Empire, 1871-1890:   

  • How did the emergence of the German Empire after 1871 alter the balance of power in Europe?   
  • What were Bismarck’s goals for Germany?   
  • What happened at the Congress of Berlin?   
  • Know the goals Bismarck pursued in his diplomatic negotiations with other nations 

 

Alliance Systems—Triple Alliance and Triple Entente:   

  • Know the circumstances that led to the creation of the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente   
  • Know the development of the European alliance systems?   
  • What did Bismarck create diplomatically?
  • Know the Congress of Berlin, 1878   
  • How did France, Britain and Russia respond?  
  • What was the Entente Cordiale?  What countries were part of the Entente Cordiale?  Were they obligated to help each other?  
  • How did the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente form? Who were members of each?
  • Know the role of Militarism and how it destabilized Europe.  Understand the naval arms race between Great Britain and Germany.  How did that contribute to tensions in Europe?

 

World War I—1914-1918:   

  • How did Nationalism contribute to World War I?  Know the importance of Serbian Nationalism.
  • Why is World War I a turning point in history?   
  • What led to the outbreak of World War I? What crises led to the War?   
  • Know how the Balkan crises incited the beginning of World War I   
  • What was the role played by alliances among the great powers in preventing the war from remaining localized in the Balkans?  What was the so-called "Blank Check"?
  • What was the Schlieffen Plan?  Why did it fail?  What was the result of its failure?
  • Know the major events of World War I. Also, know what life was like for the ordinary soldier. Why did the war become a stalemate and how did each side try to break the stalemate?   
  • Under what circumstances did the United States enter World War I? What were the goals of the US? How did these differ from that of the other belligerents?  
  • Why did Germany loose World War I?   

 

The Russian Revolution, 1917:   

  • Know what brought about the Russian Revolution in 1917.   
  • What were the reasons for the Russian Revolution?   
  • Be familiar with the provisional government that initially took over after the abdication of the tsar (March 1917-Oct. 1917) and why it failed.
  • Know the major figures of the Russian Revolutionary era--Kerensky, Lenin, Trotsky
  • Who were the Bolsheviks and how did they seized power?   
  • What was the impact of the Bolshevik government on World War I?  
  • What was the Russian Civil War.  Who fought against whom?  Why did the Bolsheviks succeed?  What measures did the Bolsheviks employ to win--i.e. War Communism

 

The End of World War I and the Versailles Peace Conference:   

  • What were the military reasons for the Allied victory in World War I?  
  • Who were the victors and who were the vanquished in World War I?
  • How did the war alter the position of the western European powers in the international community?  
  • Be able to discuss the Versailles Peace Conference and Treaty of Versailles.  
  • Be familiar with the peace making process and the impact of that process on the postwar world.  
  • Was the Versailles peace settlement just? Be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the peace treaty negotiated by the victorious powers after the war?
  • How did each power come out at the end of World War I?   
  • Why did the Versailles settlement leave Germany bitter?   
  • Know the purpose of the League of Nations and how it was conceived and set up.
  • How did World War I alter the relationship between imperial powers and colonized peoples?   

 

TERMS:    

New Imperialism   

 

Balfour Declaration   

 

War Guilt Clause   

 

“Splendid Isolation”   

 

Congress of Berlin   

 

Triple Alliance   

 

Triple Entente   

 

Italia Irredenta   

 

Alsace-Lorraine   

 

Marne   

 

Alfred von Tirpitz   

 

Pan-Slavic movement   

 

Moroccan crisis   

 

Sarajevo   

 

Schlieffen Plan   

 

Big Four   

 

Soviets   

 

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk   

 

Fourteen Points   

 

League of Nations   

 
"Black Hand" Franz Ferdinand Treaty of Versailles Lenin
Russian Civil War Battle of the Marne Kerensky Blank Check